En 2017, le Labex EFL accueillera 9 professeurs invités dans le cadre de sa Chaire Internationale /
Au titre de la Chaire internationale 2016, le Labex aura l'honneur d'accueillir 12 professeurs de renommée internationale.
En 2015, 8 professeurs invités ont donné des séminaires au titre de la Chaire Internationale 2015 du Labex EFL
Bientôt plus d'informations !
En 2014, 9 professeurs invités ont donné des conférences au titre de la chaire internationale du Labex EFL,
JOHN ESLING - University of Victoria, Phonetic complexity: models, phonetic corpora, empirical methods. Les séminaires ont été donnés les vendredi 7 novembre (10h-12h), vendredi 14 novembre (10h-12h), vendredi 21 novembre (10h-12h), vendredi 28 novembre (10h-12h), au Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie, 19 rue des Bernardins, 75005 Paris. Plus d'informations ici / Présentations disponibles ici
SHRAVAN VASISHTH - Université de Potsdam, Advanced statistical analysis models for empirical/experimental linguistics. Les séminaires ont été donnés les 7 octobre (16h-18h), jeudi 9 octobre (16h00-18h00), mardi 14 octobre (16h00-18h00) et jeudi 16 octobre (16h18h) à l'Université Paris Diderot - salle 268 - bâtiment ODG.
Plus d'informations et présentations disponibles ici
JOE PATER - University of Massachussets Amherst, Complexité structurelle dans l'apprentissage de la phonologie. Vos rendez-vous avec M. Pater étaient prévus les vendredi 12 décembre (14h-16h), vendredi 9 janvier 2015 (14h-16h), vendredi 23 janvier 2015 (14h30-16h30) et le vendredi 6 février (14h30-16h30) au Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie, 19 rue des Bernardins, 75005 Paris. Plus d'informations ici.
LYN FRAZIER - Université de Amherst http://people.umass.edu/lyn/
- Dates des séminaires: 1 juillet, 3 juillet, 7 juillet et 10 juillet
- Lieu : salle 163 Bâtiment Olympe de Gouges, Paris Diderot (angle Rue Albert Einstein - Boulevard du Général Jean Simon, Entrée coté rue Albert Einstein - voir le plan: ici
Mardi 01/7 16h-18h Lecture 1. The syntax-discourse divide.
This lecture will focus on the approach Frazier and Clifton have taken to mismatch ellipsis, where an antecedent does not match the ellipsis site syntactically. Their approach entails that mismatch ellipsis is ungrammatical but at times acceptable. Much of the lecture will be devoted to showing that the assumption that technically ungrammatical sentences can be acceptable under certain circumstances is required generally, not just for ellipsis.
Jeudi 03/07 16h-18h Lecture 2. The Question Under Discussion (QUD).
This lecture looks at the role of QUD in processing. What kinds of QUD are accommodated? When does the QUD influence processing? Does it influence the processing of the sentence, or only the inferences drawn at the end of the sentence concerning how the sentence connects to discourse?
Lundi 07/07 16h-18h Lecture 3. Processing Not-At-Issue (NAI) content.
NAI content influencesjudgments about a sentence differently than At Issue content does. NAI content will be analyzed as contributing a quasi-independent speech act from the speech act of the containing utterance. Experimental evidence will be presented in support of this view.
Jeudi 10/07 16h-18h Lecture 4. Prosody.
This lecture will take up the role of prosody in sentence processing, focusing on the interplay of prosody with various components of grammar. It will focus in particular on the entirely open question of how root sentences are identified, and the interplay of prosody and NAI vs AI content.
EVE CLARK Université de Stanford, "Conversation, feedback, and first language acquisition", 02/05, 09/06, 16/06, 23/06.
Where ? conférences données SALLE 126, Bat. Olympe de Gouges (rue Albert Einstein 75013)
1. Acquisition, Interaction, and Feedback (le lundi, 2 juin, 16-18)
Children acquire language in conversation: this setting allows for exposure to the target language, feedback on their own attempts to use language, and extensive practice with different, more expert, speakers.
2. Attention, Grounding, and Word Acquisition (le mercredi, 9 juin)
To acquire new words, children need to be able to identify the intended referent on each occasion -- object, action, property, or relation in context. Adults and children coordinate in relying on joint attention, physical co-presence, and conversational co-presence to manage initial mappings of word forms.
3. Conceptual Perspective and Speaker Choices (le lundi, 16 juin, 16-18)
Speakers can present different perspectives on events through their choices of words (and of constructions). This can affect what they understand, and how they 'view' objects, actions, and events on different occasions. Children, I argue, begin to grasp some of these perspectives very early -- and the findings here argue against a constraints-based view of early lexical acquisition.
4. A Gradualist View of Word Meaning (le lundi, 23 juin, 16-18)
Does everyone acquire the same lexicon, with the same conventional meanings? Or do people differ, in part as a result of differences in expertise? I first consider the problem of lexical entries that don't match and the extent to which this matters, and the extent to which people may have different yet partially overlapping meanings for some (maybe many) words. I relate this state of affairs to the gradual nature of meaning acquisition -- from children's initial fast mapping (preliminary inferences about a possible/plausible meaning in context) to their gradual elaboration of word meanings as they are exposed to more uses and as they themselves misuse certain words.
ZYGMUNT FRAJZYNGER Université de Colorado, Semantic prerequisites for the typology of the functional categories http://spot.colorado.edu/~frajzyng/index.html
NINA SUMBATOVA Russian State University for the Humanities (Moscou), "The languages of the North Caucasus: a challenge for the linguistic theory".
1. 17/03 : Class agreement: noun class systems, morphology, targets, long distance agreement.
2. 24/03 : Personal agreement: morphology, control and diachronic sources.
3. 31/03 : Coreference marking: "backward control" and other rarities.
4. 07/04 : Information structure: the syntax of argument-focus sentences and other puzzles.
Les lundis 17/03, 24/03, 31/03, 07/04 de 16h à 18h Institut national des Langues et Civilisations Orientales,
65 rue des Grands Moulins, Paris 13ème, salle 4.24 (Salle des Conseils)
ELEN BIALYSTOK Université de York, "Language Conflict and Executive Control". 22/04, 29/04, 06/05, 13/05.
Date : mercredi 30 Avril 2014, 10h-12h
Lieu : Salle du conseil, Institut de Psychologie, Université Paris Descartes.
71, avenue Edouard Vaillant, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (M° Marcel Sembat, ligne 9).
Title: Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain
Abstract: A growing body of research points to a significant effect of bilingualism on cognitive outcomes across the lifespan. The main finding is evidence for the enhancement of executive control at all stages in the lifespan, with the most dramatic results being maintained cognitive performance in elderly adults, and protection against the onset of dementia. I will review evidence from both behavioral and imaging studies and propose a framework for understanding the mechanism that could lead to the reported consequences of bilingualism and the limitation or absence of these effects under some conditions.
Les conférences qui ont suivi:
- 6 mai de 10h à 12h : Bilingualism as a factor in children's cognitive development
- 7 mai de 14h à 16h : ERP studies of lexical processing in bilinguals
- 13 mai de 10h à 12h : Bilingualism and aging
CATHERINE BEST University of western Sydney,
Native language tuning effects on perceptyion of consonants, vowels and spoken words". 22/04, 29/04, 13/05, 20/05.
Labex EFL: Catherine Best’s four seminar presentations
Who? Catherine Best is a Labex EFL International Chair in 2014 and will be working at the Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie from April 14 to May 21. She is a Professor and Chair in Psycholinguistic Research at MARCS Institute and the School of Humanities and Communication Arts at the University of Western Sydney (Australia), is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Phonetica, and has also been selected as the ISCA Distinguished Lecturer (International Speech Communicaiton Association) for 2014-2016. Professor Best is most well-known for her Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) of nonnative speech perception and empirical findings within that framework, which has more recently been extended to cross-language perception by second language learners and bilingual listeners. Her current work has also extended the principles of cross-language speech perception to address how adult and infant listeners deal with regional accent differences within their own native language when recognizing spoken words.
Where? Salle Las Vergnas (Centre Censier, 3ème étage, 17 rue Santeuil, Censier-Daubenton)
When? Tuesday 22 and 29 April, 13 and 20 May, 4 to 6 p.m., except 29 April (5 to 7 p.m.)
What? Talk #1: April 22, 16-18h:
title: "Devil or angel in the details? Phonetic variation and the complementary principles of phonological distinctiveness and phonological constancy”
The phonetic patterns of ambient speech provide the raw materials for infants to discover the principles of their native language. By 10-12 months they show attunement to phonetic variations that are relevant in their language, and declining sensitivity to distinctions that are irrelevant to it, laying the cornerstone for mature listeners’ rapid and automatic recognition of native words. But what makes a phonetic distinction ‘relevant’ versus ‘irrelevant?’ The answer lies in how listeners relate the phonetic details of a word to its phonological structure, while taking into account the extensive phonetic variations in a given word across talkers, speech styles, and regional accents. Those phonetic variations are not “noise,” instead providing crucial information about two complementary principles that together define the phonological structure of words. One principle is phonological distinctiveness, which refers to language-specific minimal contrasts that meaningfully distinguish otherwise identical spoken forms. The complementary principle is phonological constancy, which permits listeners to recognize a word across talker and accent differences. A spoken word’s structure is co-defined by the phonetic variations that alter its phonological form and those that leave it intact. Discovering the balance between those two sides of native speech variability requires both episodic and abstract learning, which moves the child beyond attunement and into the realm of word recognition, and provides the foundation for adults' rapid, automatic recognition of native language words.
Talk #2: April 29 (17-19h):
title: "Cross-language speech perception: Naive, second-language and bilingual listeners”
Talk #2: May 13 (16-18h):
title: "Spoken word recognition across regional accent variation: I. Native and second language adults”
Unfamiliar regional accents disrupt spoken word recognition by L2 adults and young L1 learners, can also trip up L1 adults, and often confuse ASR and smart systems. Little research, however, has addressed the aspects of non-native accents that hinder word recognition, or the processes involved. We used a Visual World task to assess how English regional accent differences influence the time course of spoken word recognition by L1 and L2 adults. Based on the principles of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM: e.g., Best, 1995, and PAM-L2: Best & Tyler, 2007), we selected cross-accent differences in consonant and vowel pronunciation to fall into two broad categories: Category Shifting (CS) and Category Goodness (CG). CS differences refer to pronunciations in a relatively unfamiliar regional accent that L1 listeners are likely to perceptually assimilate to their native accent as a different phoneme than the speaker intended, e.g., Australian (AusE) listeners tend to hear TH in Cockney-accented THIEVES as [f]. CG accent differences instead involve non-native accented phoneme pronunciations that are likely to be assimilated instead as merely deviant pronunciations of the same phoneme in the listener's native accent, e.g., AusE listeners hear the affricated T in Cockney-accented TINY as a /t/ with a deviant or marked pronunciation. Two listener groups of listeners, for whom AusE was the L1 or L2 (Chinese L1-Mandarin speakers), heard words spoken in AusE and two unfamiliar accents, Cockney-(CknE) and Jamaican-Mesolect-accented English (JaME), which display both CS and CG differences from AusE, primarily in their consonant (CknE) or vowel pronunciations (JaME). Listeners heard each word and identified it by clicking among printed choices of the target word, word onset competitor, word offset competitor, and phonologically unrelated distracter, or ³not there². Proportions of fixations to onset and offset competitors during the decision period indicate that cross-accent perceptual assimilation to the AusE accent played a key role in recognition of JaME and CknE pronunciations for both L1 and L2 listeners, especially at word onsets but also at offsets. Vowel and consonant variations affected lexical competition similarly in both groups, suggesting the L2 listeners had formed AusE-accented lexical representations, with one exception: for CknE words the L2 listeners failed to show the same assimilation (CS>CG) difference for word offset competitors as the L1 listeners. Thus, although the Mandarin listeners had formed AusE-like phonological categories for their L2-English, they paid less attention to consonant coda information than did L1-AusE listeners, suggesting a persistent influence of their L1-Mandarin, in which only nasal consonants can occur in coda positions. Implications of these findings for current perspectives on spoken word recognition and cross-language speech perception will be discussed
May 20 (16-18h): Spoken word recognition across regional accent variation: II. Development in young children
title: "Spoken word recognition across regional accent variation: II. Development in young children”
abstract: Numerous prior findings indicate that 19-month-olds detect minimal-pair phonological distinctions in newly-learned and already-known words more quickly and reliably, and under a greater range of task demands, than 14-15 month-olds. Those studies all employed single-phoneme manipulations (equivalent to "mispronunciations") of words the child knew or had just been taught, which essentially tests the children’s working knowledge of phonological distinctiveness, i.e., recognition that minimal-pair phonemic changes transform a given word into another word or a nonword (Best, Tyler, Gooding, Orlando & Quann, 2009; Kitamura, Panneton & Best, 2013; Mulak & Best, 2013). However, such manipulations confound a phonetic change with a phonological change, and cannot alone clarify the nature of the developmental change between 14-15 and 19 months. The complementary ability to recognize phonological constancy in words despite differences in pronunciation, e.g., phonetic variations across regional accents, can help resolve the issue. Our research on toddlers’ recognition of familiar words pronounced in a regional accent of the native language that the child has not previously experienced, reveals a similar developmental trajectory for phonological constancy as for phonological distinctiveness. We reported the first finding that 19- but not 15-month-olds can recognize words in an unfamiliar accent (Best et al., 2009). Our follow-up studies have found that the younger age has difficulty recognizing even native-accented words when stimulus variability is increased (more speakers, words, and tokens), that vocabulary size rather than age per se is the correlate of stable versus unstable phonological constancy, that these developmental patterns hold up across eyetracking measures of word identification as well as listening preferences for familiar words, and more recently that perceptual assimilation (Perceptual Assimilation Model: Best, 1995; Best & Tyler, 2007) of the non-native-accented consonants and vowels to the listener’s native accent underlies the emergence of phonological constancy . The implications of the complementary relationship between phonological distinctiveness and phonological constancy for lexical and phonological abilities will be discussed.
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